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Auteur David J Dittrich
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Approaches for the design of reduced toxicant emission cigarettes / David J Dittrich (2014)
Titre : Approaches for the design of reduced toxicant emission cigarettes Type de document : document électronique Auteurs : David J Dittrich, Auteur ; Richard T Fieblekorn, Auteur ; Michael J Bevan, Auteur Editeur : Springer Année de publication : 2014 Importance : 23 p. Présentation : tab.,graph. Langues : Anglais (eng) Catégories : [TABAC] chimie du tabac
[TABAC] chimie du tabac:fumée:goudron
[TABAC] chimie du tabac:tabac fumé:cigarette:cigarette filtre
[TABAC] prévention:stratégie:réduction du risque
[TABAC] tabagisme:effet du tabac:toxicité
Index. décimale : TA 1.1 Tabac fumé Résumé : Cigarette smoking causes serious diseases through frequent and prolonged exposure to toxicants. Technologies are being developed to reduce smokers’ toxicant exposure, including filter adsorbents, tobacco treatments and substitutes.This study examined the effect of modifications to filter ventilation, variations in cigarette circumference and active charcoal filter length and loading, as well as combinations of these features in a reduced-toxicant prototype (RTP) cigarette, on the yields of toxicants in cigarette smoke. An air-dilution mechanism, called split-tipping, was developed in which a band of porous paper in the centre of the filter tipping functions to minimise the loss of effective filter ventilation that occurs at the high flow rates encountered during human-smoking, and to facilitate the diffusional loss of volatile toxicants. As compared with conventional filter ventilation cigarettes, split-tipping reduced tar and volatile
smoke constituent emissions under high flow rate machine-smoking conditions, most notably for products with a 1-mg ISO tar yield. Furthermore, mouth level exposure (MLE) to tar and nicotine was reduced among smokers of 1-mg ISO tar cigarettes in comparison to smokers of cigarettes with traditional filter ventilation. For higher ISO tar level cigarettes, however, there were no significant reductions in MLE. Smaller cigarette circumferences reduced sidestream toxicant yields and modified the balance of mainstream smoke chemistry with reduced levels of aromatic amines and
benzo[a]pyrene but increased yields of formaldehyde. Smaller circumference cigarettes also had lower mainstream yields of volatile toxicants. Longer cigarette filters containing increased levels of high-activity carbon (HAC) showed reduced machine-smoking yields of volatile toxicants: with up to 97% removal for some volatile toxicants at higher HAC loadings. Split-tipping was combined with optimal filter length and cigarette circumference in an RTP cigarette that gave significantly lower mainstream (up to ~90%) and sidestream (predominately 20%–60%) smoke yields of
numerous toxicants as compared with a commercial comparator cigarette under machine-smoking conditions. Significantly lower mainstream and sidestream smoke toxicant yields were observed for an RTP cigarette comprising several toxicant reducing technologies; these observations warrant further evaluation in clinical studies where real-world relevance can be tested using biomarkers of exposure and physiological effect.
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